UNIT 2 SELF DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATION

  1. What is attitude? What role does it play in communication?

Communication and confidence level. A confident speaker making a presentation to his clients or a politician insisting voters to vote for him or a salesman wanting to clinch an important deal is bound to be a winner. However, he must possess the conviction of his ideas, thoughts, feelings, sentiments and emotions etc., which must be aligned towards the goal he wishes to achieve, get elected, win a contract, get purchase order etc. If one is not convinced about the quality of one’s product himself, he may try any hard, he cannot succeed in the absence of his conviction that the service or product he is selling is the best. Confidence is also a personality trait and is part of one’s attitude, some people are born losers and some others are born winners, they get their attitude in the DNA (no doubt attitude can be modified, though it is a very slow, time consuming and cumbersome process). Some people ooze confidence in the way they walk, talk, shake hands and act on proposals, some others spread the negative aspects of their personality to anyone who comes across them. One must remember that the negative emotions are infectious and spread much faster than the positive ones. 6. Communication by setting a good example.

  1. What are the components of developing a good communication skill?

DEVELOPING THE ART OF GOOD COMMUNICATION SKILLS Communication skill is an art; some people have the natural talent and flair for it, it is inbuilt in their personality and perhaps is a part of their DNA; some others develop it as part of their grooming and growth, yet some others learn and practice it. However, one thing is certain that all of us can improve our present level of communication skills, provided special attention is paid to the following:

  1. Learn to empathise with the person you want to communicate with. Empathy is one’s ability ‘to put oneself in the shoes of the other person. When you see two persons quarrelling over any issue (and som times without any issue), both expect the other person to understand his point of view before making an effort to understand the opponent’s point of view. Arguments result in misunderstanding because we do not empathise, instead we try to find faults in others to score points, forgetting that all of us have so much bad in us that it does not behave anyone of us to criticize others. When one knows, by understanding the other person’s point of view, why he behaves the way he does, itis so much easier to develop rapport, which is the foundation of good communication. It is said that when we put ourselves in the other person’s place, we are less likely to want to “put him in his place”.

  2. Try to listen and not hear. Someone said that most of us become hard of hearing much before actually becoming deaf. Listening is ‘hearing with a purpose’, all of us hear but do not listen. One aspect of positive communication is that the people should be listening to each other i.e., understanding the purpose of communication. While a person who is engaged in hearing gives non-verbal responses, which dis courage the others to carry on with conversation, a listener’s response, through body language ,encourages and enhances communication. Listeners display-genuine desire to be attentive and pay special attention to what the other party is saying. Good listening is possible only if proper environment is created for good positive communication. If one is surrounded by files and papers and interrupted time and again by visitors and telephone calls, effective listening cannot take place. Certain people tend to focus on what they have to say after the other person has finished and hence fail to get the true meaning of the conversation or discussion. The listener should not only focus on what is being said, he should also move 5-10 degrees towards the speaker and encourage him to carryon by positive responses like, ‘Yes, I see, Go on, Then, Ok, Well’ etc. Golden principle for listening is what William Shakespeare said in Helmet “Give every man thine ear, but few thy voice”. Unfortunately, most of us love to hear our voice rather than listening to others.

  3. Make the other person comfortable to talk. A person under any kind of stress, fear, worry or anxiety cannot indulge in good communication. It is your responsibility to develop a proper rapport as a colleague, senior or counselor etc., with the person who wants to communicate with you. Making the other person comfortable by putting  him at ease is the beginning of positive communication The body language of the other person often indicates his shyness and tense state of mind. We  should  try and discern the indicators like the person conveying greeting in a feeble voice ,stiff posture, keeping more than desirable distance and so on. This often observed in interviews when  the candidate is preoccupied with his anxiety whether he will be selected or not as he is overawed with the authority and superior knowledge of the interviewer. If the idea is to make the conversation useful for both the parties, then appropriate level of comfort and support between the source and the receiver of the communication is of utmost importance.

  4. Keep quiet and give other person the opportunity to speak. It is perhaps one of the worst things people do while communicating, they keep talking without realizing that others also have a point of view and would like to put it across. Most of us do not keep quiet long enough and the other person does not get a chance to speak. One cannot be listening if one talks; it is the fundamental principle of listening and law of nature also, as God gave us two ears and one mouth for this particular reason. Talking too much is as much a habit as drinking or smoking and we all understand how difficult it is to quit these habits. Listening skill has to be developed through practice, maturity and experience. Even persons in the profession of marketing (which many people erroneously believe demands a lot of talking) need to listen more than talking, to be able to understand the other person’s interests and needs, so essential for achieving a bargain in their favor. The habit of listening more and talking less is a habit that can go a long way in making a person a good communicator.

  5. Put across the purpose of communication clearly and at an early stage. Purposeless conversation has no place in formal or informal communication, as it wastes time and effort and neither of the parties is able to gain anything out of it. The source or sender must be very clear what he wants the receiver to do, understand, get directions  to take action, request back for any clarification etc.; only then the ultimate purpose of communication is served. Self’ Development and Communication NOTES Self-Instructional Material 2 Business Communication NOTES 22 Self-Instructional Material In today’s world where everyone is hard pressed for time, it is important that the sender prepares himself for the communication and knows exactly what he wants to convey, the methodology of delivery of the message, receiving feedback, others who have to help in the process of communication and so on. One should come straight to the point; it will keep the interest of the receivers in the talk and help them in receiving the .desired information and knowledge in a more beneficial manner. Keeping the people guessing of what one has to say, unnecessarily dramatizing the conversation to raise the level of expectations of the receivers, does no good to the quality of communication.

  6. Understanding people and human nature. Perhaps, the first step towards learning to develop communication skills is to understand people and human nature. One can become a skillful communicator only if one understands why people behave the way they do, what motivates or demotivates them, what they like to do and what they hate to do, why they love themselves more than anything else in the world and so on. Most of us have a latent desire to see others the way we want them to see the world, we need to recognize the people the way they are and not what we think they are or what we want them to be. Remembering the following will help :

    • Primary interest of other people is in themselves, their family, job, comfort, and so on and not in others. We are all made like this; we are all interested in ourselves much more than what we are interested in others. Being selfish is human nature, and we are there to communicate and not change the human nature, we have to accept it as it is. Our thoughts and activities are best directed to serve others, using this knowledge of other’s behavior pattern can help in good communication.

    • To put the person one wants to communicate with, at ease, we must appreciate that there is no other subject under the sun, which will attract his attention than talking about him. When we talk about others, we are going with the law of nature but when we talk too much about ourselves, we are going against the human nature. It is a great idea to reduce the use of words like’!, to the minimum and replace it with ‘you’ or ‘we’ as far as possible. While communicating with others, good conversation is to talk about others, what others like to do, their good habits, their achievements and so on. They get the other people involved in talking about themselves, their profession, their family etc., and that is what communication is all about.

    • Others like to feel important as much as we like others to feel how important we are. Appreciating and complementing a good quality or achievement will make others respond to our talk as no body wants to be seen in bad light by others. If others feel that we think good of them, it will be easier to engage them in useful conversation. We should do the bare minimum talking about ourselves, leave this for the others.

    • We should make an effort to be acceptable to the others by understanding their point of view first, rather than expecting them to understand our point of view first. As long as there are two parties involved, there are bound to, be different point of views and that does not mean one has to agree to the other’s point of view to be agreeable. It is right mind-set that is required to understand the. other’s point of view, rather than inventing someway of disagreeing and inviting avoidable argument- and criticism. And, if an argument does start, one should not get angry and loose the purpose of conversation, one should retain the focus, otherwise the very purpose of getting involved in this unpleasant situation i.e., communication itself will suffer. Arguments can carryon and on and no one wins. Adopting the win-win attitude encourages good communication.

7. Keep the communication as simple as possible. Keeping the communication as simple as possible, without loading it the unnecessary jargon, facts and figures etc., to impress the other person, has much better chance of success. We often come across people who use the specially chosen words from their vocabulary and carryon with clumsy and full of verbosity style till the audience gets bored and rejects the communication.

  1. What is interdependence? What are the basic aspects of communication?

Having seen the importance of communication, let us understand what is communication with the help of a simple model. Communication involves the following elements, which are explained here in relation with

 figure 2.1. The communication process starts with a sender, also called the transmitter or the source. The sender can be one individual, a group, a machine, in fact anyone who acts as the source of communication. Before communication, the sender mayor may not have prepared the message i.e., the thoughts, ideas, feelings or experiences etc., which are to be communicated to others.

  1. What is feedback? What is its role in communication?

Feedback. Communication can become a two-way process only if the receiver of the message decides to respond. In such a case, the role of the sender and receiver is reversed. It is only with the help of feedback that the sender of the message gets to know whether the message was correctly received by the receiver and interpreted or understood in the manner it was meant to. The very purpose of communication is to get a desired response from the receiver and if it is not achieved, the communication fails. If a professor conveys to his students to be at a particular place, day and time to attend a seminar and if they are not there, the desired response, which the message intended, has not been received. Hence, feedback enables the source to know whether the message has been received and interpreted correctly.

  1. Write a note on medium of communication.

Medium in Communication. Medium used in the transmission of message plays a vital role in effective communication. ·Everyone knows the impact of communication received through a bad telephone line or a mobile phone with a low battery in a basement, blurred fax messages, poor internet connectivity and so on. Of course, most important media of communication are oral or through spoken or written words. However, there are other as powerful and effective means of communication. A land lord with large land holding may step on the land of a small farmer and may give him just a frown to scare him away and pressurize him to abide by his unfair command. A very senior man may ignore the greeting of a subordinate to make the junior understand his authority, a student may turn his face away rather than wishing him when coming in face to face situation with his teacher, and so on. Different types of media may be chosen by the sender or the source, depending upon who is to receive the message and what action and in what time frame the sender wants it.

  1. What do you understand by ‘whole communication’?

As described earlier, communication is complete only when the receiver gets exactly the same message as was intended by the source or sender. To make the communication effective, the following must be kept in mind:

  • Is the media used for communication, the most appropriate to achieve the aims of the communication? If it is plain simple exchange of information, may be a word on telephones good enough but information, knowledge and wisdom is meant to be conveyed to a large group of audience seated far away from the source, a different kind of media should be used to make the communication(and resulting impact on the behavior of the receivers) as perfect as possible.

  • Need to know – This is important in the case of organizations etc., where every information cannot be passed on to everyone and the principle of ‘need to know’ assumes great importance. A circular from the head-office increasing the petrol allowance of senior officers of a. particular organization need not be communicated to class IV employees of the organization. Similarly, increase in the EPF rates need not be communicated to those drawing more than Rs. 10,000as salary. However, the announcement regarding the increase in Diwali bonus, availability of a new cycle/scooter stand etc., must be made to every one; This is related with the ‘costliness’ of the decision to share information, in case of military secrets, it could result in catastrophic situations.

  • Knowledge of the receiver, his educational and cultural background, his attitude, his special circumstances in which he operates in personal and professional life etc.

  •  What is to be achieved by a particular communication? It is very important, as unless there is a specific aim of the communication as a purpose for it, it is useless and be avoided.

  1. Combine written/oral communication with visual display for maximum effect. The impact of any communication, whether oral or written, formal or informal is enhanced when it is supported by LCD projector/visual presenter displays on the screen. Anything seen is recorded better and retained better by the human brain. All presentations should be made with the help of visual displays, as facts and figures, diagrams and sketches, photographs etc., intricate. and complex circuits can be understood ‘much easily with such aids. People often keep a white-board and markers at hand to explain their point to a senior/colleague/junior, a client, in fact, anyone who is interested in the information! Knowledge they have. Itis a good idea to combine the effect of one’s vocabulary, tone, modulation of voice, body language (in case of oral communication) and visual display for successful expression of what one wants to convey.

  2. Writing clearly and concisely. Who are the authors whose books make record sales? Not the ones with the best of plots and stories but the one’s whose writing is concise, clear, simple and readable. Those who write difficult language to prove their literary excellence, may get awards but their creations do not get noticed by the common man. Any ambiguity kills the very purpose of communication. Writing in a language to express is an art and can be developed with practice, it involves the following:

  • What is to be expressed?

  • Who is the receiver of the written communication?

  • What kind of language needs to be used?

  • Any visual support needed?

  • What else can be done to make written communication more readable, better understood and acceptable by the reader?

    • Communication by setting a good example. The best communication is done through one’s own actions, which others can follow. Self-example is…1; he Self Development and Communication NOTES Self-Instructional Material 27 Business Communication NOTES 1 Self-Instructional Material best example as preaching anything is much easier than actually implementing it. A corrupt politician cannot solicit support from generally good voters, a poor military leader cannot lead troops to victory and lusterless CEO cannot take his company to the new heights.

7. How communication can build up one’s self confidence?

Professional Icon #275073 - Free Icons LibraryCommunication and confidence level. A confident speaker making a presentation to his clients or a politician insisting voters to vote for him or a salesman wanting to clinch an important deal is bound to be a winner. However, he must possess the conviction of his ideas, thoughts, feelings, sentiments and emotions etc., which must be aligned towards the goal he wishes to achieve, get elected, win a contract, get purchase order etc. If one is not convinced about the quality of one’s product himself, he may try any hard, he cannot succeed in the absence of his conviction that the service or product he is selling is the best. Confidence is also a personality trait and is part of one’s attitude, some people are born losers and some others are born winners, they get their attitude in the DNA (no doubt attitude can be modified, though it is a very slow, time consuming and cumbersome process). Some people ooze confidence in the way they walk, talk, shake hands and act on proposals, some others spread the negative aspects of their personality to anyone who comes across them. One must remember that the negative emotions are infectious and spread much faster than the positive ones.

8. What do you understand by response? Discuss its role in communication process.

The communication process starts with a sender, also called the transmitter or the source. The sender can be one individual, a group, a machine, in fact anyone who acts as the source of communication. Before communication, the sender mayor may not have prepared the message i.e., the thoughts, ideas, feelings or experiences etc., which are to be communicated to others.

Receiver. In the communication process, the receiver is that individual, group or organization who is the recipient or target of the message transmitted by the sender. Communication is considered to be successful only if it is received by the intended person or party who decodes and is able to attach a meaning to it; the meaning sender wanted the receiver to get. This depends on a large number of factors, as each receiver individually or as party/group is unique. Hence, while coding the message by the sender, it is important that the receiver of the message is kept in mind, otherwise miscommunication is bound to take place. This, in fact happens every day in our professional or personal lives.

9. Write a note on the term (acronym) KISS? How does it affect communication?

  • Keep the communication as simple as possible. Keeping the communication as simple as possible, without loading the unnecessary jargon, facts and figures etc., to impress the other person, has much better chance of success. We often come across people who use the specially chosen words from their vocabulary and carryon with clumsy and full of verbosity style till the audience gets bored and rejects the communication. The acronym KISS (keep it simple, stupid) tells it all. We should not expect the receiver of the communication to labor to get the meaning. Many a good content are lost, because the author has tried to weave the magic of the words, creating confusion and losing the essence of simple straight-forward communication. Often, a simple sentence using common words can make more sense than long sentences with number of commas and semicolons. Clarity of thoughts is reflected in the clarity of the words. Keeping the communication concise and clear whether oral or written, is easier said than done. It should be remembered that ultimately the reason for any communication is to express the ideas, thoughts and feelings and not to impress the receiver with one’s knowledge of words.

  • The acronym KISS (keep it simple, stupid) tells it all. We should not expect the receiver of the communication to labor to get the meaning. Many a good content are lost because the author has tried to weave the magic of the words, creating confusion and loosing the essence of simple straight -forward communication. Often, a simple sentence using common words can make more sense than long sentences with number of commas and semicolons; Clarity of thoughts is reflected in the clarity of the words. Keeping the communication concise and clear, whether oral or written, is easier said than done. Some of the authors are more readable than others, when one reads them one feels as if what is being read is actually happening in front of the reader. It should be remembered that ultimately the reason for any communication is to express the ideas, thoughts and feelings and not to impress the receiver with one’s knowledge of words.

  1. Combine written/oral communication with visual display for maximum effect.

  2. Writing clearly and concisely.

  3. Repeat to ensure the message is driven home.

  4. Communication and confidence level.

UNIT 3 CORPORATE COMMUNICATION

  1. What do you understand by corporate communication?

  2. Discuss various networks of corporate communication.

  3. What are the types of communications? Define and discuss.

  4. What are the characteristics of Grapevine communication?

  5. What are the directions of communications?

  6. Discuss the methods of downward communication.

  7. What are the barriers to downward communication?

  8. How can we make downward communication effective?

  9. What are the basic objectives of horizontal communication?

  10. What do you understand by upward communication?

  11. How one can make upward communication effective?

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